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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 931-936

Peri-operative management of children with spinal muscular atrophy

1 Children's Hospital of Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA
2 Department of Anesthesia, American Family Children's Hospital, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
3 Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, American Family Children's Hospital, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
4 Pediatrics, American Family Children's Hospital, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Cure SMA, Elk Grove, IL, USA

Correspondence Address:
Rewais Hanna
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 750 Highland Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53705
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_312_20

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Background and Aims: Current multi-disciplinary management of children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) often requires the surgical management of spinal deformities. We present the outcomes of our peri-operative experience around the time of their spinal surgery and share our neuromuscular perioperative protocol. Methods: A single-centre retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate all children with SMA types I and II that underwent thoracolumbar spinal deformity correction (posterior spinal fusion or growing rod insertion) from 1990 to 2015. Electronic medical records were reviewed to assess pre-operative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. T-tests, Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Fisher's Exact tests were performed as appropriate. Results: Twelve SMA I and twenty-two SMA II patients were included. Type I patients tended to be smaller and had a higher percentage (36.4% vs 4.5%) of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 4 patients. Preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was utilised in 75.0% of type I and 18.2% type II patients. A difficult intubation was experienced in around 25% of the patients (20.0% SMA I, 27.3% SMA II). Approximately two hours of anaesthetic time was required in addition to the actual surgical time in both types. The intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay averaged 6 (4.0-7.5) days for type I and 3 (3-5) days for type II (p = 0.144). Average post-operative length of stay was (8 (7-9) vs. 7 (6-8)) P = 1.0. Conclusion: Children with type I and II SMA have similar hospital courses. The surgical and anaesthesia team should consider perioperative TPN and NIPPV (non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation), anticipate difficult intubations, longer than usual anaesthetic times, and potentially longer ICU stays in both SMA type I and II.

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