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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 264-265  

Transfusion practices in trauma

1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Sri Ramachandra Medical College Research Institute, Porur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Masters in Public Health Candidate - May 2015, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

Date of Web Publication13-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. V Trichur Ramakrishnan
Department of Emergency Medicine, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Porur, Chennai - 600 116, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.155015

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How to cite this article:
Ramakrishnan V T, Cattamanchi S. Transfusion practices in trauma. Indian J Anaesth 2015;59:264-5

How to cite this URL:
Ramakrishnan V T, Cattamanchi S. Transfusion practices in trauma. Indian J Anaesth [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Jun 24];59:264-5. Available from: https://www.ijaweb.org/text.asp?2015/59/4/264/155015


We would like to thank the reader for his comments on our recently published article on "Transfusion practice in trauma" published in IJA. [1] In the article, emphasis was on the importance of early recognition of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). The tests to assess coagulopathy such as prothrombin time (PT), international normalised ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are done through central laboratory (CL) testing, and require extended length of time to process the results. Extended duration of time to process the test results through CL defeats the fundamental idea of early recognition of TIC. However, there are bedside rapid INR testing devices such as INRatio [2],[3] and CoaguChek, [4] that rapidly determines INR within 120 s. These rapid testing devices play a critical role in the management of TIC in the emergency department (ED), saving at least 60 min in the process of obtaining PT, aPTT and INR results. [3]

Rapid INR testing devices have been available and are being used in some of the major trauma centres and EDs worldwide for the last 10 years. [3] They are cost-effective and easy to perform. Studies have shown that INR rapid testing is a suitable alternative to CL. [3],[4],[5] These rapid INR devices achieved a clinically acceptable level of accuracy in patients with suspected TIC, providing clinically relevant data to help the physician in the decision-making process. [3] However, because of the possibility of false positives or negatives, decision making should also incorporate physical examination, estimation of blood loss, rapid haemoglobin determination, focused assessment with sonography for trauma and/or computed tomographic imaging. The rapid INR device is a critical tool in assessing coagulopathy and predicting requirements for a massive transfusion in trauma patients and have already been included in several management algorithms. [6],[7],[8],[9]

In trauma victims, an initially abnormal PT and aPTT correlates with increased mortality. [10] PT, aPTT, and INR do not address the clot's strength; clot's stability and extent of any existing hyperfibrinolysis. However, thromboelastogram (TEG) or rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM) helps in early diagnosis of the mechanism of coagulopathy, the strength and stability of a clot, and early detection of hyperfibrinolysis in trauma patients; testing the blood at the actual body core temperature of the victim. [6] TEG/ROTEM provides a full spectrum of trauma patient's haemostatic status along with a precise differential diagnosis of the primary cause of patient's coagulopathy, [10] requiring on an average 30 min for the test results. [6] TEG/ROTEM has been shown to be a useful tool in guiding transfusion in trauma patients [10],[11],[12],[13] and an algorithm for trauma patients has been proposed. [11]

Because of the rapid availability of the INR, within 120 s, addition of rapid INR devices to the massive transfusion protocol for managing patients with life-threatening injuries may increase their accuracy, and decrease unnecessary transfusions that carry specific adverse events (multiple organ failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome).

   References Top

Ramakrishnan VT, Cattamanchi S. Transfusion practices in trauma. Indian J Anaesth 2014;58:609-15.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Alere INRatio @ 2 - PT/INR Monitoring System. Alere Web Site. Available from: http://www.alere.com/in/en/brands/inratio.html. [Last accessed on 2015 Mar 19].  Back to cited text no. 2
David JS, Levrat A, Inaba K, Macabeo C, Rugeri L, Fontaine O, et al. Utility of a point-of-care device for rapid determination of prothrombin time in trauma patients: A preliminary study. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012;72:703-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Lakshmy R, Kumar AS. Comparative evaluation of pint of care coagulation monitoring by coaguchek XS-comparison with standard laboratory method. Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;26:125-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
Tripodi A. Prothrombin time international normalized ratio monitoring by self-testing. Curr Opin Hematol 2004;11:141-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
Bartal C, Yitzhak A. The role of thromboelastometry and recombinant factor VIIa in trauma. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2009;22:281-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
Yücel N, Lefering R, Maegele M, Vorweg M, Tjardes T, Ruchholtz S, et al. Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH)-Score: Probability of mass transfusion as surrogate for life threatening hemorrhage after multiple trauma. J Trauma 2006;60:1228-36.  Back to cited text no. 7
Schreiber MA, Perkins J, Kiraly L, Underwood S, Wade C, Holcomb JB. Early predictors of massive transfusion in combat casualties. J Am Coll Surg 2007;205:541-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
McLaughlin DF, Niles SE, Salinas J, Perkins JG, Cox ED, Wade CE, et al. A predictive model for massive transfusion in combat casualty patients. J Trauma 2008;64:S57-63.  Back to cited text no. 9
Kozek-Langenecker S. Management of massive operative blood loss. Minerva Anestesiol 2007;73:401-15.  Back to cited text no. 10
Kozek-Langenecker S. Monitoring of hemostasis in emergency medicine. In: Vincent JL (editor). Intensive Care Medicine. Annual Update 2007. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 847-60.  Back to cited text no. 11
Rugeri L, Levrat A, David JS, Delecroix E, Floccard B, Gros A, et al. Diagnosis of early coagulation abnormalities in trauma patients by rotation thrombelastography. J Thromb Haemost 2007;5:289-95.  Back to cited text no. 12
Levrat A, Gros A, Rugeri L, Inaba K, Floccard B, Negrier C, et al. Evaluation of rotation thrombelastography for the diagnosis of hyperfibrinolysis in trauma patients. Br J Anaesth 2008;100:792-7.  Back to cited text no. 13


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