Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
February 2017
Volume 61 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 101-185

Online since Thursday, February 09, 2017

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Dexmedetomidine as premedication in children: Status at the beginning of 2017 p. 101
Anila Devchand Malde
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Anaesthesia for adenotonsillectomy: An update Highly accessed article p. 103
Anand Bangera
Adenotonsillectomy remains one of the most common surgical procedures carried out in children. Though a commonly performed procedure, it poses a great challenge to the surgeon as well as the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In the post-operative period, it poses threats such as post-tonsillectomy bleeding and airway obstruction if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Various recent advances in airway management and early detection of post-operative complications have been made to reduce the sequelae associated with tonsillectomy. In this article, we have reviewed the various techniques, complications and recent advances, which have evolved in the anaesthetic technique related to adenotonsillectomy.
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Consensus statement on anaesthesia for day care surgeries Highly accessed article p. 110
Satish Kulkarni, SS Harsoor, M Chandrasekar, S Bala Bhaskar, Jitendra Bapat, Edakeparavan Keloth Ramdas, Umesh Kumar Valecha, Amol Shashikumar Pradhan, Adarsh Chandra Swami
The primary aim of day-care surgery units is to allow for early recovery of the patients so that they can return to their familiar 'home' environment; the management hence should be focused towards achieving these ends. The benefits could include a possible reduction in the risk of thromboembolism and hospital-acquired infections. Furthermore, day-care surgery is believed to reduce the average unit cost of treatment by up to 70% as compared to inpatient surgery. With more than 20% of the world's disease burden, India only has 6% of the world's hospital beds. Hence, there is an immense opportunity for expansion in day-care surgery in India to ensure faster and safer, cost-effective patient turnover. For this to happen, there is a need of change in the mindset of all concerned clinicians, surgeons, anaesthesiologists and even the patients. A group of nine senior consultants from various parts of India, a mix of private and government anaesthesiologists, assembled in Mumbai and deliberated and discussed on the various aspects of day-care surgery. They formulated a consensus statement, the first of its kind in the Indian scenario, which can act as a guidance and tool for day-care anaesthesia in India. The statements are derived from the available published evidence in peer-reviewed literature including guidelines of several bodies such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists, British Association of Day Surgery and International Association of Ambulatory Surgery. The authors also offer interpretive comments wherever such evidence is inadequate or contradictory.
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Efficacy of intranasal dexmedetomidine versus oral midazolam for paediatric premedication p. 125
Lakshmi Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Ramkumar Panikkaveetil, Bindu K Vasu, Sunil Rajan, Suresh G Nair
Background and Aims: Premedication is an integral component of paediatric anaesthesia which, when optimal, allows comfortable separation of the child from the parent for induction and conduct of anaesthesia. Midazolam has been accepted as a safe and effective oral premedicant. Dexmedetomidine is a selective alpha-2 agonist with sedative and analgesic effects, which is effective through the transmucosal route. We compared the efficacy and safety of standard premedication with oral midazolam versus intranasal dexmedetomidine as premedication in children undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery. Methods: This was a prospective randomised double-blinded trial comparing the effects of premedication with 0.5 mg/kg oral midazolam versus 1 μg/kg intranasal dexmedetomidine in children between 2 and 12 years undergoing abdominal surgery. Sedation scores at separation and induction were the primary outcome measures. Behaviour scores and haemodynamic changes were secondary outcomes. Student's t-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of the variables. Results: Sedation scores were superior in Group B (dexmedetomidine) than Group A (midazolam) at separation and induction (P < 0.001).The behaviour scores at separation, induction and wake up scores at extubation were similar between the two groups. The heart rate and blood pressure showed significant differences at 15, 30 and 45 min in Group B but did not require pharmacological intervention for correction. Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine at a dose of 1 μg/kg produced superior sedation scores at separation and induction but normal behavioural scores in comparison to oral midazolam in paediatric patients.
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Comparison of oral dexmedetomidine versus oral midazolam as premedication to prevent emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in paediatric patients p. 131
M Kavya Prabhu, Sripada G Mehandale
Background and Aims: Sevoflurane is the most often used inhalational agent in paediatric anaesthesia, but emergence agitation (EA) remains a major concern. Oral midazolam and parenteral dexmedetomidine are known to be effective in controlling EA. We attempted to elucidate whether oral dexmedetomidine is better than midazolam in controlling EA. Methods: Prospective double-blinded study involving ninety patients aged 1–10 years, undergoing elective surgeries of <2 h of expected duration under sevoflurane general anaesthesia, randomised to receive either midazolam (Group A) or dexmedetomidine (Group B) as oral premedication was carried out to record level of sedation before induction, haemodynamic parameters and recovery time. Incidence and severity of EA, post-operative pain and requirement of rescue analgesic were assessed at 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min postoperatively. Results: Data were analysed applying Student's t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Mask acceptance was better in Group B (97.8% vs. 73.4%,P< 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was lower in Group B (P < 0.001) though clinically not significant. More rescue analgesic was required in Group A (5.6% vs. 0%). There was no significant difference in adverse effects. Although there was a higher incidence of EA in Group A (Aono's score 3 and 4; 40% vs. 4.4%), none of them required intervention (paediatric anaesthesia emergence delirium score >10; 0 vs. 0). Conclusion: Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine provides smooth induction and recovery, reduces the EA and provides better analgesia and sedation as compared to oral midazolam.
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Efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine on patient's satisfaction, comfort and sedation during awake fibre-optic intubation in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy posted for elective cervical fixation p. 137
Saikat Niyogi, Samir Basak, Amita Acharjee, Indrani Chakraborty
Background and Aims: Various anaesthetic drugs, in addition to airway block, are used for producing favourable intubation conditions during awake fibre-optic intubation (AFOI), but most of them cause respiratory depression and hypoxaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine (DEX) on sedation, patient comfort and cardiovascular responses during AFOI in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods: This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, prospective study was conducted on 56 adult patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) undergoing elective cervical fixation, who were randomly allocated into two groups - Group D and Group C. Group D patients received DEX infusion at a rate of 1 μg/kg for the first 10 min followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h and Group C received 0.9% normal saline infusion in the same manner. Airway blocks with lignocaine were given to all patients before undergoing AFOI. Patient's alertness, sedation and cardiorespiratory changes during the procedure were assessed by the Observer Assessment Awareness and Sedation (OAA/S) scale. On the 1st post-operative day, patient's' comfort during AFOI was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Patients of Group D had an acceptable level of sedation (OAA/S score: 20 to 17 with greater comfort and satisfaction (VAS: 40–60), compared to control group (VAS: 50–90, P < 0.001.). Moreover, haemodynamic parameters were less significantly altered in the DEX group during AFOI. Conclusions: IV DEX infusion during AFOI improves patient's tolerances with an acceptable level of sedation without significant haemodynamic instability and respiratory depression.
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Intravenous palonosetron compared with a combination of ramosetron and dexamethasone in preventing post operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under spinal anaesthesia, a randomised study p. 144
Archana B Narayanappa, Shivakumar Gurulingaswamy, Umesh N Prabhakaraiah, Somsundar R Gurushanth, Vinay Sapare, Nagaraj Goud
Background and Aims: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common complications in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under spinal anaesthesia (SA). Palonosetron has the unique property of controlling 'delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting' when compared to older serotonin antagonists. This study compared the effectiveness of palonosetron with a combination of ramosetron and dexamethasone in preventing PONV. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under SA were randomly allocated into two groups of thirty each,to receive either a combination of 0.3 mg of ramosetron and 8 mg of dexamethasone intravenously (IV) (Group RD) or 0.075 mg of palonosetron IV (Group P). The incidence of PONV, number of complete responders (no nausea, vomiting or use of rescue anti-emetics) and severity of nausea were evaluated during intra- and post-operative period. Results: The incidence of complete responders during intraoperative period was 80.0% in Group RD and 76.7% in Group P (P = 0.074) whereas postoperatively at 0–2 h and 2–6 h, it was 73.3% and 83.3% in Group RD respectively as compared to 46.6% and 56.6% in Group P respectively (P = 0.016 and P= 0.024). The incidence of PONV during 24 h of post-operative period was 30.00% in Group RD as compared to 60.00% in Group P (P = 0.0195). Nausea severity score and use of rescue anti-emetics did not vary between the groups. Conclusion: Combination of ramosetron and dexamethasone is more effective than palonosetron alone in preventing PONV in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under SA.
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Effect of discontinuing morning dose of antihypertensive for renal transplant surgery on haemodynamic and early graft functioning: A prospective, double-blind, randomised study p. 150
Vinod Kumar, Virendra Kumar Arya, Rakesh V Sondekoppam, Suman Arora, Mukut Minz, Rakesh Garg, Nishkarsh Gupta
Background and Aims: Antihypertensive drugs are continued until the day of renal transplant surgery. These are associated with increased incidence of hypotension and bradycardia. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate perioperative haemodynamic and early graft functioning in renal recipients with discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs on the morning of surgery. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind study recruited 120 patients. Group 1 patients received placebo tablet while Group 2 patients received usual antihypertensive drugs on the day of surgery. Perioperative haemodynamics and time for reinstitution of antihypertensives were the primary outcome measures. The secondary outcome measures were need for inotropic support and graft function. Perioperative haemodynamics were analysed using ANOVA and Student's t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Fischer's exact test was used for analysis. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) declined, which was more in Group 2. Forty-one patients developed significant hypotension; a correlation was found between the maximum observed hypotension and number of antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003). Four cases had slow graft function (one in Group 1 and three in Group 2). Twenty-eight patients in Group 2 required mephentermine boluses to maintain their SBP compared to 13 patients in Group 1 (P < 0.001). Two patients in Group 2 required dopamine to maintain SBP above 90 mmHg after the establishment of reperfusion as compared to none in Group 1. Conclusion: Single dose of long-acting antihypertensive drugs can be omitted on the morning of surgery without any haemodynamic fluctuations and graft function in controlled hypertensive end-stage renal disease renal transplant patients receiving a combined epidural and general anaesthesia.
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Mortality prediction in Indian cardiac surgery patients: Validation of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II p. 157
Prachi Kar, Kanithi Geeta, Ramachandran Gopinath, Padmaja Durga
Background and Aims: Risk Stratification has an important place in cardiac surgery to identify high-risk cases and optimally allocate resources. Hence various risk scoring systems have been tried to predict mortality. The aim of the present study was to validate the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) in Indian cardiac surgical patients. Methods: After obtaining ethics committee clearance, data on EuroSCORE II variables were collected for all patients >18 years undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valve surgery and mixed (CABG + valve) procedures between January 2011 and December 2012. Mortality prediction was done using the online calculator from the site The calibration of the EuroSCORE II model was analysed using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test and discrimination was analysed by plotting receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and calculating area under the curve (AUC). The analysis was done in the total sample, CABG, valve surgery and in mixed procedures. Results: The overall observed mortality was 5.7% in the total sample, 6.6% in CABG, 4.2% in valve surgeries and 10.2% in mixed procedures whereas the predicted mortality was 2.9%, 3.1%, 2.4%, 5.1% in total sample, CABG, valve surgery and mixed procedure, respectively. The significance (P value) of Hosmer–Lemeshow test was 0.292, 0.45, 0.56 and 1 for the total sample, CABG, valve surgery and mixed procedure, respectively, indicating good calibration. The AUC of ROC was 0.76, 0.70, 0.83 and 0.78 for total sample, CABG, valve surgery and mixed procedure, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality of the sample was under-predicted by EuroSCORE II. Calibration of the EuroSCORE II model was good for total sample as well as for all surgical subcategories. Discrimination was good in the total sample and in the mixed procedure population, acceptable in CABG patients and excellent in valve surgeries.
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Developing competency in post-graduate students of anaesthesiology for taking informed consent for elective caesarean section p. 163
Kamla Harshad Mehta, Vandana Saurin Shah, Kirti Dhirajlal Patel
Background and Aims: Post-graduate medical students (residents) generally lack effective communication skills required to obtain informed consent. The aim of this study was to assess role play and group discussion as teaching/learning tools for improving residents' knowledge on informed consent and competency in communicating while taking informed consent. Methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted on 30 anaesthesia residents. They were first observed while obtaining informed consent and their basic knowledge regarding communication skills was checked with a pre-test questionnaire. Then, lecture and group discussion were carried out to increase the knowledge base, and their knowledge gain was checked by the same questionnaire as a post-test. Communication skills were demonstrated by role play and residents were assessed by direct unobtrusive observation using a checklist. Feedback regarding effectiveness of programme was taken from students. Statistical analyses were done using Microsoft Office Excel and SPSS software. Results: Percentage gain was 122.37% for knowledge domain. For communication skills, mean ± standard deviation for checklist was 8.93 ± 1.43 before role play and it improved to 17.96 ± 1.29 after role play. Regarding effectiveness of role play as a teaching/learning tool, 76.66% of residents said they strongly agreed and 23.33% of residents said they agreed. Likert scale for evaluation of programme was graded 4 or 5 by all residents. Conclusion: The knowledge and communication skills required for obtaining informed consent was improved significantly after role playing.
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Anaesthetic management of a patient with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension for renal transplantation p. 167
MN Chidananda Swamy, Aninditha Mukherjee, Latha L Rao, Sushmitha Pandith
We describe a patient with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension scheduled to undergo live-related renal transplantation. We emphasise on meticulous anaesthetic management and early renal transplantation to prevent the progression of disease which would become refractory to treatment, leading to right ventricular failure. Regional (continuous epidural) anaesthesia has been used as technique of choice, where the selective advantages of this technique have been put to good use.
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Barriers for labour analgesia in South India – knowledge and attitude of relevant stakeholders: A hospital-based cross-sectional study p. 170
S Syed Thahir Hussain, P Maheswari
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Anaesthetic and perioperative management of lung transplantation p. 173
Nainar Madhu Sankar, Salla Sweta Ramani, Kirthivasan Vaidyanathan, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
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Bezold Jarisch reflex and acute cardiovascular collapse during craniotomy p. 176
Kanchan Bilgi, Sriganesh Kamath, Nikhat Sultana
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Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block: A valuable armamentarium for post-operative pain management p. 178
Sumitra G Bakshi, Nupur Karan
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Klippel–Feil syndrome: Interchange of Plan A and B for airway management in the same patient under different circumstances p. 179
Karri Pavani, Handattu Mahabaleswara Krishna
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Mind the gap!!: Reversal of arterial to end-tidal CO2gradient in thoracoscopic bronchogenic cyst excision p. 181
Priyanka Pradeep Karnik, Ketan S Kulkarni, Nandini Malay Dave, Madhu Garasia
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Anaesthetic and haemodynamic management of Boerhaave's syndrome p. 182
K Ashok, A Mahalakshmi, A Hariesh, A Kalyanaraman
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Increased pipeline pressure leading to concurrent activation of a medium priority alarm in all anaesthesia machines (GE™ Avance™) in an operation theatre complex p. 184
Amar Nandhakumar
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Lighter Planes p. 185

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